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DEHUMANI2ATION                         69

any real unity of belief. Such a thing as unity of
belief does not exist in a single society or state
to-day. An obligatory unity is attained by a
sort of collective emotional demonic possession.
Unity is attained by the dictatorship of a party
which makes itself the equivalent of the state.
From the sociological viewpoint it is very inter-
esting that freedom is constantly diminishing in
the world, not only in comparison with societies
founded on liberal and democratic principles, but
even in comparison with the old monarchical and
aristocratic societies where, actually, there was
more liberty, in spite of the fact that there was far
greater unity in the matter of religious faith. In
the older social forms, really great liberty was
assured for fairly limited groupsóliberty was
an aristocratic privilege. When the circle was
widened and society made uniform, instead of
freedom being extended to all, it is non-freedom
which becomes universal: all are equally subject
to the state or to society. A socially differentiated
order preserved certain liberties for an elect
group. Freedom is an aristocratic rather than
a democratic privilege. Tocqueville saw in
democracy a danger for liberty. The same
problem is posed by Marx and Mussolini as
illustrated in Communism and Fascism.

The world has entered a period of the agony
of the free spirit.   Man is shaken to his very